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New to Mobile Learning Development: 3 Big Problems and 7 Solutions

Mobile learning from MLearnopedia - Sat, 08/30/2014 - 00:49
New to Mobile Learning Development: 3 Big Prob- lems and 7 Solutions Mobile Learning is Here to Stay With the introduction of the Apple iPhone and iPad, a mobile computing revolution. began. With competition from Google, Blackberry (RIM), Microsoft, and HP heating up. from all sides, smart phones and tablets are here to stay. devices? issues. Rapid.

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Categories: Mobile learning

This week's sponsor: LessAccounting

A List Apart - Thu, 08/28/2014 - 19:30

Thanks to our sponsor, LessAccounting. You deserve simple bookkeeping to help you avoid the stresses of accounting.

Categories: Mobile learning

The Modern Classroom: Students, Teachers and Data-Driven Education

UBI-Learn - Thu, 08/28/2014 - 17:01

mashable.com | Article Link | by James O'Brien

The days of paper textbooks seem destined to become as distant a memory as cursive handwriting. In 2014, big data is reshaping the way students receive curriculum and learn, and the tools of the new and digital classroom are changing the dynamics for educators.

"Data is changing the way people think," says Eileen Murphy Buckley, founder and CEO of ThinkCERCA, a company in the data-driven education space. "From critical accountability to teacher accountability to the way we arrange time, our learning spaces, technologies — data is disrupting everything."

The inclusion of the computer in K–12 classes is nothing new; they've been on desks since the days of Texas Instruments. In more recent times, however, pupils aren't turning to their screens to learn a little BASIC or play a round of Oregon Trail — they're increasingly experiencing data-driven teaching as a fully integrated part of a post-textbook, personalized academic process.

If you think about the impact of technology on our lives today, algorithms are analyzing our behavior — both on and offline — all the time. They shape what we do in the moment, and they often steer us toward what we do next.

Read more...

Image Courtesey of Wikimedia Commons / Camelia.boban

Categories: Mobile learning

Rachel Andrew on the Business of Web Dev: Getting to the Action

A List Apart - Thu, 08/28/2014 - 12:30

Freelancers and self-employed business owners can choose from a huge number of conferences to attend in any given year. There are hundreds of industry podcasts, a constant stream of published books, and a never-ending supply of sites all giving advice. It is very easy to spend a lot of valuable time and money just attending, watching, reading, listening and hoping that somehow all of this good advice will take root and make our business a success.

However, all the good advice in the world won’t help you if you don’t act on it. While you might leave that expensive conference feeling great, did your attendance create a lasting change to your business? I was thinking about this subject while listening to episode 14 of the Working Out podcast, hosted by Ashley Baxter and Paddy Donnelly. They were talking about following through, and how it is possible to “nod along” to good advice but never do anything with it.

If you have ever been sent to a conference by an employer, you may have been expected to report back. You might even have been asked to present to your team on the takeaway points from the event. As freelancers and business owners, we don’t have anyone making us consolidate our thoughts in that way. It turns out that the way I work gives me a fairly good method of knowing which things are bringing me value.

Tracking actionable advice

I’m a fan of the Getting Things Done technique, and live by my to-do lists. I maintain a Someday/Maybe list in OmniFocus into which I add items that I want to do or at least investigate, but that aren’t a project yet.

If a podcast is worth keeping on my playlist, there will be items entered linking back to certain episodes. Conference takeaways might be a link to a site with information that I want to read. It might be an idea for an article to write, or instructions on something very practical such as setting up an analytics dashboard to better understand some data. The first indicator of a valuable conference is how many items I add during or just after the event.

Having a big list of things to do is all well and good, but it’s only one half of the story. The real value comes when I do the things on that list, and can see whether they were useful to my business. Once again, my GTD lists can be mined for that information.

When tickets go on sale for that conference again, do I have most of those to-do items still sat in Someday/Maybe? Is that because, while they sounded like good ideas, they weren’t all that relevant? Or, have I written a number of blog posts or had several articles published on themes that I started considering off the back of that conference? Did I create that dashboard, and find it useful every day? Did that speaker I was introduced to go on to become a friend or mentor, or someone I’ve exchanged emails with to clarify a topic I’ve been thinking about?

By looking back over my lists and completed items, I can start to make decisions about the real value to my business and life of the things I attend, read, and listen to. I’m able to justify the ticket price, time, and travel costs by making that assessment. I can feel confident that I’m not spending time and money just to feel as if I’m moving forward, yet gaining nothing tangible to show for it.

A final thought on value

As entrepreneurs, we have to make sure we are spending our time and money on things that will give us the best return. All that said, it is important to make time in our schedules for those things that we just enjoy, and in particular those things that do motivate and inspire us. I don’t think that every book you read or event you attend needs to result in a to-do list of actionable items.

What we need as business owners, and as people, is balance. We need to be able to see that the things we are doing are moving our businesses forward, while also making time to be inspired and refreshed to get that actionable work done.

Categories: Mobile learning

Mobile Ordering And Payments: Will The Large Banks Miss The Boat?

Mobile learning from MLearnopedia - Thu, 08/28/2014 - 11:42
'Mobile payment methods have not made as much progress as expected, but research suggests paying with cash and credit cards will soon be a thing of the past. Mobile Devices mobile shopping mobile technology sales enablement

Brought to you by: Mobile Learning
Categories: Mobile learning

The Impact of Mobile Technology on Logistics, Transportation and Supply Chain Management

Mobile learning from MLearnopedia - Mon, 08/25/2014 - 13:57
'Logistics, supply chain, and transportation management will benefit from new mobile and networking technologies that will lead to collaboration among manufacturers in order to lower costs. Mobile Strategy GPS logistics near-field communications NFC retail RFID supply chain

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Categories: Mobile learning

10 Years Ago in ALA: Pocket Sized Design

A List Apart - Mon, 08/25/2014 - 12:30

The web doesn’t do “age” especially well. Any blog post or design article more than a few years old gets a raised eyebrow—heck, most people I meet haven’t read John Allsopp’s “A Dao of Web Design” or Jeffrey Zeldman’s “To Hell With Bad Browsers,” both as relevant to the web today as when they were first written. Meanwhile, I’ve got books on my shelves older than I am; most of my favorite films came out before I was born; and my iTunes library is riddled with music that’s decades, if not centuries, old.

(No, I don’t get invited to many parties. Why do you ask oh I get it)

So! It’s probably easy to look at “Pocket-Sized Design,” a lovely article by Jorunn Newth and Elika Etemad that just turned 10 years old, and immediately notice where it’s beginning to show its age. Written at a time when few sites were standards-compliant, and even fewer still were mobile-friendly, Newth and Etemad were urging us to think about life beyond the desktop. And when I first re-read it, it’s easy to chuckle at the points that feel like they’re from another age: there’s plenty of talk of screens that are “only 120-pixels wide”; of inputs driven by stylus, rather than touch; and of using the now-basically-defunct handheld media type for your CSS. Seems a bit quaint, right?

And yet.

Looking past a few of the details, it’s remarkable how well the article’s aged. Modern users may (or may not) manually “turn off in-line image loading,” but they may choose to use a mobile browser that dramatically compresses your images. We may scoff at the idea of someone browsing with a stylus, but handheld video game consoles are impossibly popular when it comes to browsing the web. And while there’s plenty of excitement in our industry for the latest versions of iOS and Android, running on the latest hardware, most of the web’s growth is happening on cheaper hardware, over slower networks (PDF), and via slim data plans—so yes, 10 years on, it’s still true that “downloading to the device is likely to be [expensive], the processors are slow, and the memory is limited.”

In the face of all of that, what I love about Newth and Etemad’s article is just how sensible their solutions are. Rather than suggesting slimmed-down mobile sites, or investing in some device detection library, they take a decidedly standards-focused approach:

Linearizing the page into one column works best when the underlying document structure has been designed for it. Structuring the document according to this logic ensures that the page organization makes sense not only in Opera for handhelds, but also in non-CSS browsers on both small devices and the desktop, in voice browsers, and in terminal-window browsers like Lynx.

In other words, by thinking about the needs of the small screen first, you can layer on more complexity from there. And if you’re hearing shades of mobile first and progressive enhancement here, you’d be right: they’re treating their markup—their content—as a foundation, and gently layering styles atop it to make it accessible to more devices, more places than ever before.

So, no: we aren’t using @media handheld or display: none for our small screen-friendly styles—but I don’t think that’s really the point of Newth and Etemad’s essay. Instead, they’re putting forward a process, a framework for designing beyond the desktop. What they’re arguing is for a truly device-agnostic approach to designing for the web, one that’s as relevant today as it was a decade ago.

Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose.

Categories: Mobile learning

Free course on teaching connected #online courses

Mobile learning from MLearnopedia - Sun, 08/24/2014 - 15:23
'Thanks to the wonderful Maha Bali , I was pointed towards a really nice initiative that allows everyone with an interest to learn how to set up, facilitate and experience an online, connected course (cfr connected-MOOCs). This initiative is called the Connected Courses Initiative , and will introduce active co-learning in higher ed.

Brought to you by: Mobile Learning
Categories: Mobile learning

Daniel Pfeiffer Talks Offline and Reusable Code at 360iDev

Mobile learning from MLearnopedia - Fri, 08/22/2014 - 18:18
'Float’s Lead Developer Daniel Pfeiffer heads to Denver, Colo., to talk about writing reusable code and why offline is not a special case at the 360iDev conference on Aug. 24-27. Conferences Mobile Development 360iDev development iOS

Brought to you by: Mobile Learning
Categories: Mobile learning

The MOOC Completion Conundrum: Can ‘Born Digital’ Fix Online Education?

UBI-Learn - Fri, 08/22/2014 - 18:10

http://innovationinsights.wired.com | Article Link  | by Dror Ben-Naim, Smart Sparrow     

One of the great ironies of online learning is that a tool created to foster personalized learning is actually quite impersonal, in practice. It doesn’t have to be that way.

MOOCs (Massive Open Online Course) are based on a simple premise: deliver free content from the world’s greatest professors to the masses, and a global community of students could take the same courses as students attending elite colleges and universities. The hope was that broad-based access to higher education would enable unprecedented numbers of learners to fulfill the democratic promise of higher education, social mobility and professional attainment.

It is now clear that the hype surrounding MOOCs has outpaced the model’s ability to deliver on the promise of a revolution in higher education. Initial data demonstrates that MOOCs have lived up to their name in terms of generating massive enrollments; however, completion rates — including introductory, lecture courses — hover in the low single digits.

These findings should not be surprising. MOOCs combine a set of existing tools that can be useful instructional supports, such as online lectures, social networks, and quizzes. But few professors would consider these technologies, together, as a substitute for the course experience.

Last month, Columbia Teachers College released a MOOC progress report, which took a close look at implementation challenges and barriers to success. The report stated that “while the potential for MOOCs to contribute significantly to the development of personalized and adaptive learning is high, the reality is far from being achieved.” To get there, “a great deal of coordination and collaboration among content experts, instructors, researchers, instructional designers, and programmers will be necessary.”

Read more...

Image Courtesey of Wikimedia Commons / Cafefrog

Categories: Mobile learning

This week's sponsor: Need

A List Apart - Fri, 08/22/2014 - 13:58

Need is a curated retailer and lifestyle magazine for men. Featuring exclusive items from the world’s top designers.

Check out Volume 9.

Categories: Mobile learning

Three Brilliant Consumer Text Messaging Campaigns

Mobile learning from MLearnopedia - Thu, 08/21/2014 - 17:54
'According to a recent report by eMarket, mobile marketing spending is expected to jump 83% this year. As over 90% of companies plan to increase their mobile spending budget, more and more innovative uses of text messaging are cropping up. Here are three smart campaigns that use text messaging to help promote their products. million in revenue!

Brought to you by: Mobile Learning
Categories: Mobile learning

3 Ways SMS Builds Customer Loyalty and Engagement

Mobile learning from MLearnopedia - Tue, 08/19/2014 - 16:02
'Is your company seeking the perfect communication channel to reach your consumers? One that allows you to promote your product or service in the easiest, most convenient way possible? If so, look no further—because text messaging does exactly that. It connects your business with your customers by reaching them on their watch, in their comfort zone.

Brought to you by: Mobile Learning
Categories: Mobile learning

How To Combat Showrooming

Mobile learning from MLearnopedia - Tue, 08/19/2014 - 14:00
'Price-matching isn''t always a solution to showrooming, according to one source. Instead, sales enablement professionals should focus on the overall customer experience. Mobile Strategy Uncategorized retail sales enablement showrooming

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Categories: Mobile learning

Dependence Day: The Power and Peril of Third-Party Solutions

A List Apart - Tue, 08/19/2014 - 14:00

“Why don’t we just use this plugin?” That’s a question I started hearing a lot in the heady days of the 2000s, when open-source CMSes were becoming really popular. We asked it optimistically, full of hope about the myriad solutions only a download away. As the years passed, we gained trustworthy libraries and powerful communities, but the graveyard of crufty code and abandoned services grew deep. Many solutions were easy to install, but difficult to debug. Some providers were eager to sell, but loath to support.

Years later, we’re still asking that same question—only now we’re less optimistic and even more dependent, and I’m scared to engage with anyone smart enough to build something I can’t. The emerging challenge for today’s dev shop is knowing how to take control of third-party relationships—and when to avoid them. I’ll show you my approach, which is to ask a different set of questions entirely.

A web of third parties

I should start with a broad definition of what it is to be third party: If it’s a person and I don’t compensate them for the bulk of their workload, they’re third party. If it’s a company or service and I don’t control it, it’s third party. If it’s code and my team doesn’t grasp every line of it, it’s third party.

The third-party landscape is rapidly expanding. Github has grown to almost 7 million users and the WordPress plugin repo is approaching 1 billion downloads. Many of these solutions are easy for clients and competitors to implement; meanwhile, I’m still in the lab debugging my custom code. The idea of selling original work seems oddly…old-fashioned.

Yet with so many third-party options to choose from, there are more chances than ever to veer off-course.

What could go wrong?

At a meeting a couple of years ago, I argued against using an external service to power a search widget on a client project. “We should do things ourselves,” I said. Not long after this, on the very same project, I argued in favor of a using a third party to consolidate RSS feeds into a single document. “Why do all this work ourselves,” I said, “when this problem has already been solved?” My inconsistency was obvious to everyone. Being dogmatic about not using a third party is no better than flippantly jumping in with one, and I had managed to do both at once!

But in one case, I believed the third party was worth the risk. In the other, it wasn’t. I just didn’t know how to communicate those thoughts to my team.

I needed, in the parlance of our times, a decision-making framework. To that end, I’ve been maintaining a collection of points to think through at various stages of engagement with third parties. I’ll tour through these ideas using the search widget and the RSS digest as examples.

The difference between a request and a goal

This point often reveals false assumptions about what a client or stakeholder wants. In the case of the search widget, we began researching a service that our client specifically requested. Fitted with ajax navigation, full-text searching, and automated crawls to index content, it seemed like a lot to live up to. But when we asked our clients what exactly they were trying to do, we were surprised: they were entirely taken by the typeahead functionality; the other features were of very little perceived value.

In the case of the RSS “smusher,” we already had an in-house tool that took an array of feed URLs and looped through them in order, outputting x posts per feed in some bespoke format. They’re too good for our beloved multi-feed widget? But actually, the client had a distinctly different and worthwhile vision: they wanted x results from their array of sites in total, and they wanted them ordered by publication date, not grouped by site. I conceded.

It might seem like an obvious first step, but I have seen projects set off in the wrong direction because the end goal is unknown. In both our examples now, we’re clear about that and we’re ready to evaluate solutions.

To dev or to download

Before deciding to use a third party, I find that I first need to examine my own organization, often in four particular ways: strengths, weaknesses, betterment, and mission.

Strengths and weaknesses

The search task aligned well with our strengths because we had good front-end developers and were skilled at extending our CMS. So when asked to make a typeahead search, we felt comfortable betting on ourselves. Had we done it before? Not exactly, but we could think through it.

At that same time, backend infrastructure was a weakness for our team. We had happened to have a lot of turnover among our sysadmins, and at times it felt like we weren’t equipped to hire that sort of talent. As I was thinking through how we might build a feed-smusher of our own, I felt like I was tempting a weak underbelly. Maybe we’d have to set up a cron job to poll the desired URLs, grab feed content, and store that on our servers. Not rocket science, but cron tasks in particular were an albatross for us.

Betterment of the team

When we set out to achieve a goal for a client, it’s more than us doing work: it’s an opportunity for our team to better themselves by learning new skills. The best opportunities for this are the ones that present challenging but attainable tasks, which create incremental rewards. Some researchers cite this effect as a factor in gaming addiction. I’ve felt this myself when learning new things on a project, and those are some of my favorite work moments ever. Teams appreciate this and there is an organizational cost in missing a chance to pay them to learn. The typeahead search project looked like it could be a perfect opportunity to boost our skill level.

Organizational mission

If a new project aligns well with our mission, we’re going to resell it many times. It’s likely that we’ll want our in-house dev team to iterate on it, tailoring it to our needs. Indeed, we’ll have the budget to do so if we’re selling it a lot. No one had asked us for a feed-smusher before, so it didn’t seem reasonable to dedicate an R&D budget to it. In contrast, several other clients were interested in more powerful site search, so it looked like it would be time well spent.

We’ve now clarified our end goals and we’ve looked at how these projects align with our team. Based on that, we’re doing the search widget ourselves, and we’re outsourcing the feed-smusher. Now let’s look more closely at what happens next for both cases.

Evaluating the unknown

The frustrating thing about working with third parties is that the most important decisions take place when we have the least information. But there are some things we can determine before committing. Familiarity, vitality, extensibility, branding, and Service Level Agreements (SLAs) are all observable from afar.

Familiarity: is there a provider we already work with?

Although we’re going to increase the number of third-party dependencies, we’ll try to avoid increasing the number of third-party relationships.

Working with a known vendor has several potential benefits: they may give us volume pricing. Markup and style are likely to be consistent between solutions. And we just know them better than we’d know a new service.

Vitality: will this service stick around?

The worst thing we could do is get behind a service, only to have it shut down next month. A service with high vitality will likely (and rightfully) brag about enterprise clients by name. If it’s open source, it will have a passionate community of contributors. On the other hand, it could be advertising a shutdown. More often, it’s somewhere in the middle. Noting how often the service is updated is a good starting point in determining vitality.

Extensibility: can this service adapt as our needs change?

Not only do we have to evaluate the core service, we have to see how extensible it is by digging into its API. If a service is extensible, it’s more likely to fit for the long haul.

APIs can also present new opportunities. For example, imagine selecting an email-marketing provider with an API that exposes campaign data. This might allow us to build a dashboard for campaign performance in our CMS—a unique value-add for our clients, and a chance to keep our in-house developers invested and excited about the service.

Branding: is theirs strong, or can you use your own?

White-labeling is the practice of reselling a service with your branding instead of that of the original provider. For some companies, this might make good sense for marketing. I tend to dislike white-labeling. Our clients trust us to make choices, and we should be proud to display what those choices are. Either way, you want to ensure you’re comfortable with the brand you’ll be using.

SLAs: what are you getting, beyond uptime?

For client-side products, browser support is a factor: every external dependency represents another layer that could abandon older browsers before we’re ready. There’s also accessibility. Does this new third-party support users with accessibility needs to the degree that we require? Perhaps most important of all is support. Can we purchase a priority support plan that offers fast and in-depth help?

In the case of our feed-smusher service, there was no solution that ran the table. The most popular solution actually had a shutdown notice! There were a couple of smaller providers available, but we hadn’t worked with either before. Browser support and accessibility were moot since we’d be parsing the data and displaying it ourselves. The uptime concern was also diminished because we’d be sure to cache the results locally. Anyway, with viable candidates in hand, we can move on to more productive concerns than dithering between two similar solutions.

Relationship maintenance

If someone else is going to do the heavy lifting, I want to assume as much of the remaining burden as possible. Piloting, data collection, documentation, and in-house support are all valuable opportunities to buttress this new relationship.

As exciting as this new relationship is, we don’t want to go dashing out of the gates just yet. Instead, we’ll target clients for piloting and quarantine them before unleashing it any further. Cull suggestions from team members to determine good candidates for piloting, garnering a mix of edge-cases and the norm.

If the third party happens to collect data of any kind, we should also have an automated way to import a copy of it—not just as a backup, but also as a cached version we can serve to minimize latency. If we are serving a popular dependency from a CDN, we want to send a local version if that call should fail.

If our team doesn’t have a well-traveled directory of provider relationships, the backstory can get lost. Let a few months pass, throw in some personnel turnover, and we might forget why we even use a service, or why we opted for a particular package. Everyone on our team should know where and how to learn about our third-party relationships.

We don’t need every team member to be an expert on the service, yet we don’t want to wait for a third-party support staff to respond to simple questions. Therefore, we should elect an in-house subject-matter expert. It doesn’t have to be a developer. We just need somebody tasked with monitoring the service at regular intervals for API changes, shutdown notices, or new features. They should be able to train new employees and route more complex support requests to the third party.

In our RSS feed example, we knew we’d read their output into our database. We documented this relationship in our team’s most active bulletin, our CRM software. And we made managing external dependencies a primary part of one team member’s job.

DIY: a third party waiting to happen?

Stop me if you’ve heard this one before: a prideful developer assures the team that they can do something themselves. It’s a complex project. They make something and the company comes to rely on it. Time goes by and the in-house product is doing fine, though there is a maintenance burden. Eventually, the developer leaves the company. Their old product needs maintenance, no one knows what to do, and since it’s totally custom, there is no such thing as a community for it.

Once you decide to build something in-house, how can you prevent that work from devolving into a resented, alien dependency? 

  • Consider pair-programming. What better way to ensure that multiple people understand a product, than to have multiple people build it?
  • “Job-switch Tuesdays.” When feasible, we have developers switch roles for an entire day. Literally, in our ticketing system, it’s as though one person is another. It’s a way to force cross-training without doubling the hours needed for a task.
  • Hold code reviews before new code is pushed. This might feel slightly intrusive at first, but that passes. If it’s not readable, it’s not deployable. If you have project managers with a technical bent, empower them to ask questions about the code, too.
  • Bring moldy code into light by displaying it as phpDoc, JSDoc, or similar.
  • Beware the big. Create hourly estimates in Fibonacci increments. As a project gets bigger, so does its level of uncertainty. The Fibonacci steps are biased against under-budgeting, and also provide a cue to opt out of projects that are too difficult to estimate. In that case, it’s likely better to toe-in with a third party instead of blazing into the unknown by yourself.

All of these considerations apply to our earlier example, the typeahead search widget. Most germane is the provision to “beware the big.” When I say “big,” I mean that relative to what usually works for a given team. In this case, it was a deliverable that felt very familiar in size and scope: we were being asked to extend an open-source CMS. If instead we had been asked to make a CMS, alarms would have gone off.

Look before you leap, and after you land

It’s not that third parties are bad per se. It’s just that the modern web team strikes me as a strange place: not only do we stand on the shoulders of giants, we do so without getting to know them first—and we hoist our organizations and clients up there, too.

Granted, there are many things you shouldn’t do yourself, and it’s possible to hurt your company by trying to do them—NIH is a problem, not a goal. But when teams err too far in the other direction, developers become disenfranchised, components start to look like spare parts, and clients pay for solutions that aren’t quite right. Using a third party versus staying in-house is a big decision, and we need to think hard before we make it. Use my line of questions, or come up with one that fits your team better. After all, you’re your own best dependency.

Categories: Mobile learning

One Step Ahead: Improving Performance with Prebrowsing

A List Apart - Tue, 08/19/2014 - 14:00

We all want our websites to be fast. We optimize images, create CSS sprites, use CDNs, cache aggressively, and gzip and minimize static content. We use every trick in the book.

But we can still do more. If we want faster outcomes, we have to think differently. What if, instead of leaving our users to stare at a spinning wheel, waiting for content to be delivered, we could predict where they wanted to go next? What if we could have that content ready for them before they even ask for it?

We tend to see the web as a reactive model, where every action causes a reaction. Users click, then we take them to a new page. They click again, and we open another page. But we can do better. We can be proactive with prebrowsing.

The three big techniques

Steve Souders coined the term prebrowsing (from predictive browsing) in one of his articles late last year. Prebrowsing is all about anticipating where users want to go and preparing the content ahead of time. It’s a big step toward a faster and less visible internet.

Browsers can analyze patterns to predict where users are going to go next, and start DNS resolution and TCP handshakes as soon as users hover over links. But to get the most out of these improvements, we can enable prebrowsing on our web pages, with three techniques at our disposal:

  • DNS prefetching
  • Resource prefetching
  • Prerendering

Now let’s dive into each of these separately.

DNS prefetching

Whenever we know our users are likely to request a resource from a different domain than our site, we can use DNS prefetching to warm the machinery for opening the new URL. The browser can pre-resolve the DNS for the new domain ahead of time, saving several milliseconds when the user actually requests it. We are anticipating, and preparing for an action.

Modern browsers are very good at parsing our pages, looking ahead to pre-resolve all necessary domains ahead of time. Chrome goes as far as keeping an internal list with all related domains every time a user visits a site, pre-resolving them when the user returns (you can see this list by navigating to chrome://dns/ in your Chrome browser). However, sometimes access to new URLs may be hidden behind redirects or embedded in JavaScript, and that’s our opportunity to help the browser.

Let’s say we are downloading a set of resources from the domain cdn.example.com using a JavaScript call after a user clicks a button. Normally, the browser would have to resolve the DNS at the time of the click, but we can speed up the process by including a dns-prefetch directive in the head section of our page:

<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="http://cdn.example.com">

Doing this informs the browser of the existence of the new domain, and it will combine this hint with its own pre-resolution algorithm to start a DNS resolution as soon as possible. The entire process will be faster for the user, since we are shaving off the time for DNS resolution from the operation. (Note that browsers do not guarantee that DNS resolution will occur ahead of time; they simply use our hint as a signal for their own internal pre-resolution algorithm.)

But exactly how much faster will pre-resolving the DNS make things? In your Chrome browser, open chrome://histograms/DNS and search for DNS.PrefetchResolution. You’ll see a table like this:

This histogram shows my personal distribution of latencies for DNS prefetch requests. On my computer, for 335 samples, the average time is 88 milliseconds, with a median of approximately 60 milliseconds. Shaving 88 milliseconds off every request our website makes to an external domain? That’s something to celebrate.

But what happens if the user never clicks the button to access the cdn.example.com domain? Aren’t we pre-resolving a domain in vain? We are, but luckily for us, DNS prefetching is a very low-cost operation; the browser will need to send only a few hundred bytes over the network, so the risk incurred by a preemptive DNS lookup is very low. That being said, don’t go overboard when using this feature; prefetch only domains that you are confident the user will access, and let the browser handle the rest.

Look for situations that might be good candidates to introduce DNS prefetching on your site:

  • Resources on different domains hidden behind 301 redirects
  • Resources accessed from JavaScript code
  • Resources for analytics and social sharing (which usually come from different domains)

DNS prefetching is currently supported on IE11, Chrome, Chrome Mobile, Safari, Firefox, and Firefox Mobile, which makes this feature widespread among current browsers. Browsers that don’t currently support DNS prefetching will simply ignore the hint, and DNS resolution will happen in a regular fashion.

Resource prefetching

We can go a little bit further and predict that our users will open a specific page in our own site. If we know some of the critical resources used by this page, we can instruct the browser to prefetch them ahead of time:

<link rel="prefetch" href="http://cdn.example.com/library.js">

The browser will use this instruction to prefetch the indicated resources and store them on the local cache. This way, as soon as the resources are actually needed, the browser will have them ready to serve.

Unlike DNS prefetching, resource prefetching is a more expensive operation; be mindful of how and when to use it. Prefetching resources can speed up our websites in ways we would never get by merely prefetching new domains—but if we abuse it, our users will pay for the unused overhead.

Let’s take a look at the average response size of some of the most popular resources on a web page, courtesy of the HTTP Archive:

On average, prefetching a script file (like we are doing on the example above) will cause 16kB to be transmitted over the network (without including the size of the request itself). This means that we will save 16kB of downloading time from the process, plus server response time, which is amazing—provided it’s later accessed by the user. If the user never accesses the file, we actually made the entire workflow slower by introducing an unnecessary delay.

If you decide to use this technique, prefetch only the most important resources, and make sure they are cacheable by the browser. Images, CSS, JavaScript, and font files are usually good candidates for prefetching, but HTML responses are not since they aren’t cacheable.

Here are some situations where, due to the likelihood of the user visiting a specific page, you can prefetch resources ahead of time:

  • On a login page, since users are usually redirected to a welcome or dashboard page after logging in
  • On each page of a linear questionnaire or survey workflow, where users are visiting subsequent pages in a specific order
  • On a multi-step animation, since you know ahead of time which images are needed on subsequent scenes

Resource prefetching is currently supported on IE11, Chrome, Chrome Mobile, Firefox, and Firefox Mobile. (To determine browser compatibility, you can run a quick browser test on prebrowsing.com.)

Prerendering

What about going even further and asking for an entire page? Let’s say we are absolutely sure that our users are going to visit the about.html page in our site. We can give the browser a hint:

<link rel="prerender" href="http://example.com/about.html">

This time the browser will download and render the page in the background ahead of time, and have it ready for the user as soon as they ask for it. The transition from the current page to the prerendered one would be instantaneous.

Needless to say, prerendering is the most risky and costly of these three techniques. Misusing it can cause major bandwidth waste—especially harmful for users on mobile devices. To illustrate this, let’s take a look at this chart, also courtesy of the HTTP Archive:

In June of this year, the average number of requests to render a web page was 96, with a total size of 1,808kB. So if your user ends up accessing your prerendered page, then you’ve hit the jackpot: you’ll save the time of downloading almost 2,000kB, plus server response time. But if you’re wrong and your user never accesses the prerendered page, you’ll make them pay a very high cost.

When deciding whether to prerender entire pages ahead of time, consider that Google prerenders the top results on its search page, and Chrome prerenders pages based on the historical navigation patterns of users. Using the same principle, you can detect common usage patterns and prerender target pages accordingly. You can also use it, just like resource prefetching, on questionnaires or surveys where you know users will complete the workflow in a particular order.

At this time, prerendering is only supported on IE11, Chrome, and Chrome Mobile. Neither Firefox nor Safari have added support for this technique yet. (And as with resource prefetching, you can check prebrowsing.com to test whether this technique is supported in your browser.)

A final word

Sites like Google and Bing are using these techniques extensively to make search instant for their users. Now it’s time for us to go back to our own sites and take another look. Can we make our experiences better and faster with prefetching and prerendering?

Browsers are already working behind the scenes, looking for patterns in our sites to make navigation as fast as possible. Prebrowsing builds on that: we can combine the insight we have on our own pages with further analysis of user patterns. By helping browsers do a better job, we speed up and improve the experience for our users.

Categories: Mobile learning

Three Myths of SMS Marketing Debunked

Mobile learning from MLearnopedia - Mon, 08/18/2014 - 20:09
'Text messaging has proven to be one of the most effective marketing tactics out there, but there are still those who question its credibility. It’s time to set the record straight! Here are three common myths about SMS marketing debunked. Myth #1: Text message campaigns will send you spam. In truth, text messaging is a no-spam medium. With 6.3

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The Challenges of ‘Higher-Education Emergencies’

UBI-Learn - Mon, 08/18/2014 - 19:17

nytimes.com | Article Link | by Steve Kolowich

WASHINGTON — One narrative that has driven widespread interest in free online courses known as MOOCs is that they can help educate the world. But critics say that the courses mostly draw students who already hold traditional degrees.

When Coursera, the largest provider of MOOCs, published a blog post about how a professor had used one of its online courses to teach refugees near the Kenya-Somalia border, it sounded to some like a satire of Silicon Valley’s naïve techno-optimism: Hundreds of thousands of devastated Africans stranded in a war zone? MOOCs to the rescue!

Still, details of the experiment paint a more nuanced picture, highlighting the challenges that MOOC providers face in trying to make sophisticated online courses work in deprived settings.

Barbara Moser-Mercer, a cognitive psychologist at the University of Geneva, ran the refugee experiment and wrote Coursera’s blog post about it. But in an interview, as well as a more formal article she wrote about the experiment for a European conference on MOOCs, she expanded on the logistical issues encountered.

Ms. Moser-Mercer’s background is translation and interpretation; she still sometimes serves as an interpreter for the United Nations. Mostly, though, she works in conflict zones. She is founder and director of InZone, a group that tries to intervene in “higher-education emergencies.”

Read more...

Image Courtesey of Wikimedia Commons / DFID - UK Department for International Development 

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Valediction

A List Apart - Mon, 08/18/2014 - 12:30

When I first met Kevin Cornell in the early 2000s, he was employing his illustration talent mainly to draw caricatures of his fellow designers at a small Philadelphia design studio. Even in that rough, dashed-off state, his work floored me. It was as if Charles Addams and my favorite Mad Magazine illustrators from the 1960s had blended their DNA to spawn the perfect artist.

Kevin would deny that label, but artist he is. For there is a vision in his mind, a way of seeing the world, that is unlike anyone else’s—and he has the gift to make you see it too, and to delight, inspire, and challenge you with what he makes you see.

Kevin was part of a small group of young designers and artists who had recently completed college and were beginning to establish careers. Others from that group included Rob Weychert, Matt Sutter, and Jason Santa Maria. They would all go on to do fine things in our industry.

It was Jason who brought Kevin on as house illustrator during the A List Apart 4.0 brand overhaul in 2005, and Kevin has worked his strange magic for us ever since. If you’re an ALA reader, you know how he translates the abstract web design concepts of our articles into concrete, witty, and frequently absurd situations. Above all, he is a storyteller—if pretentious designers and marketers haven’t sucked all the meaning out of that word.

For nearly 10 years, Kevin has taken our well-vetted, practical, frequently technical web design and development pieces, and elevated them to the status of classic New Yorker articles. Tomorrow he publishes his last new illustrations with us. There will never be another like him. And for whatever good it does him, Kevin Cornell has my undying thanks, love, and gratitude.

Categories: Mobile learning

My Favorite Kevin Cornell

A List Apart - Mon, 08/18/2014 - 12:30

After 200 issues—yes, two hundred—Kevin Cornell is retiring from his post as A List Apart’s staff illustrator. Tomorrow’s issue will be the last one featuring new illustrations from him.

Sob.

For years now, we’ve eagerly awaited Kevin’s illustrations each issue, opening his files with all the patience of a kid tearing into a new LEGO set.

But after nine years and more than a few lols, it’s time to give Kevin’s beautifully deranged brain a rest.

We’re still figuring out what comes next for ALA, but while we do, we’re sending Kevin off the best way we know how: by sharing a few of our favorite illustrations. Read on for stories from ALA staff, past and present—and join us in thanking Kevin for his talent, his commitment, and his uncanny ability to depict seemingly any concept using animals, madmen, and circus figures.

Of all the things I enjoyed about working on A List Apart, I loved anticipating the reveal: seeing Kevin’s illos for each piece, just before the issue went live. Every illustration was always a surprise—even to the staff. My favorite, hands-down, was his artwork for “The Discipline of Content Strategy,” by Kristina Halvorson. In 2008, content was web design’s “elephant in the room” and Kevin’s visual metaphor nailed it. In a drawing, he encapsulated thoughts and feelings many had within the industry but were unable to articulate. That’s the mark of a master.

—Krista Stevens, Editor-in-chief, 2006–2012

In the fall of 2011, I submitted my first article to A List Apart. I was terrified: I didn’t know anyone on staff. The authors’ list read like a who’s who of web design. The archives were intimidating. But I had ideas, dammit. I hit send.

I told just one friend what I’d done. His eyes lit up. “Whoa. You’d get a Kevin Cornell!” he said.

Whoa indeed. I might get a Kevin Cornell?! I hadn’t even thought about that yet.

Like Krista, I fell in love with Kevin’s illustration for “The Discipline of Content Strategy”—an illustration that meant the world to me as I helped my clients see their own content elephants. The idea of having a Cornell of my own was exciting, but terrifying. Could I possibly write something worthy of his illustration?

Months later, there it was on the screen: little modular sandcastles illustrating my article on modular content. I was floored.

Now, after two years as ALA’s editor in chief, I’ve worked with Kevin through dozens of issues. But you know what? I’m just as floored as ever.

Thank you, Kevin, you brilliant, bizarre, wonderful friend.

—Sara Wachter-Boettcher, Editor-in-chief

It’s impossible for me to choose a favorite of Kevin’s body of work for ALA, because my favorite Cornell illustration is the witty, adaptable, humane language of characters and symbols underlying his years of work. If I had to pick a single illustration to represent the evolution of his visual language, I think it would be the hat-wearing nested egg with the winning smile that opened Andy Hagen’s “High Accessibility is Effective Search Engine Optimization.” An important article but not, perhaps, the juiciest title A List Apart has ever run…and yet there’s that little egg, grinning in his slightly dopey way.

If my memory doesn’t fail me, this is the second appearance of the nested Cornell egg—we saw the first a few issues before in Issue 201, where it represented the nested components of an HTML page. When it shows up here, in Issue 207, we realize that the egg wasn’t a cute one-off, but the first syllable of a visual language that we’ll see again and again through the years. And what a language! Who else could make semantic markup seem not just clever, but shyly adorable?

A wander through the ALA archives provides a view of Kevin’s changing style, but something visible only backstage was his startlingly quick progression from reading an article to sketching initial ideas in conversation with then-creative director Jason Santa Maria to turning out a lovely miniature—and each illustration never failed to make me appreciate the article it introduced in a slightly different way. When I was at ALA, Kevin’s unerring eye for the important detail as a reader astonished me almost as much as his ability to give that (often highly technical, sometimes very dry) idea a playful and memorable visual incarnation. From the very first time his illustrations hit the A List Apart servers he’s shared an extraordinary gift with its readers, and as a reader, writer, and editor, I will always count myself in his debt.

—Erin Kissane, Editor-in-chief, contributing editor, 1999–2009

So much of what makes Kevin’s illustrations work are the gestures. The way the figure sits a bit slouched, but still perched on gentle tippy toes, determinedly occupied pecking away on his phone. With just a few lines, Kevin captures a mood and moment anyone can feel.

—Jason Santa Maria, Former creative director

I’ve had the pleasure of working with Kevin on the illustrations for each issue of A List Apart since we launched the latest site redesign in early 2013. By working, I mean replying to his email with something along the lines of “Amazing!” when he sent over the illustrations every couple of weeks.

Prior to launching the new design, I had to go through the backlog of Kevin’s work for ALA and do the production work needed for the new layout. This bird’s eye view gave me an appreciation of the ongoing metaphorical world he had created for the magazine—the birds, elephants, weebles, mad scientists, ACME products, and other bits of amusing weirdness that breathed life into the (admittedly, sometimes) dry topics covered.

If I had to pick a favorite, it would probably be the illustration that accompanied the unveiling of the redesign, A List Apart 5.0. The shoe-shine man carefully working on his own shoes was the perfect metaphor for both the idea of design as craft and the back-stage nature of the profession—working to make others shine, so to speak. It was a simple and humble concept, and I thought it created the perfect tone for the launch.

—Mike Pick, Creative director

So I can’t pick one favorite illustration that Kevin’s done. I just can’t. I could prattle on about this, that, or that other one, and tell you everything I love about each of ’em. I mean, hell: I still have a print of the illustration he did for my very first ALA article. (The illustration is, of course, far stronger than the essay that follows it.)

But his illustration for James Christie’s excellent “Sustainable Web Design” is a perfect example of everything I love about Kevin’s ALA work: how he conveys emotion with a few deceptively simple lines; the humor he finds in contrast; the occasional chicken. Like most of Kevin’s illustrations, I’ve seen it whenever I reread the article it accompanies, and I find something new to enjoy each time.

It’s been an honor working alongside your art, Kevin—and, on a few lucky occasions, having my words appear below it.

Thanks, Kevin.

—Ethan Marcotte, Technical editor

Kevin’s illustration for Cameron Koczon’s “Orbital Content” is one of the best examples I can think of to show off his considerable talent. Those balloons are just perfect: vaguely reminiscent of cloud computing, but tethered and within arm’s reach, and evoking the fun and chaos of carnivals and county fairs. No other illustrator I’ve ever worked with is as good at translating abstract concepts into compact, visual stories. A List Apart won’t be the same without him.

—Mandy Brown, Former contributing editor

Kevin has always had what seems like a preternatural ability to take an abstract technical concept and turn it into a clear and accessible illustration.

For me, my favorite pieces are the ones he did for the 3rd anniversary of the original “Responsive Web Design” article…the web’s first “responsive” illustration? Try squishing your browser here to see it in action—Ed

—Tim Murtaugh, Technical director

I think it may be impossible for me to pick just one illustration of Kevin’s that I really like. Much like trying to pick your one favorite album or that absolutely perfect movie, picking a true favorite is simply folly. You can whittle down the choices, but it’s guaranteed that the list will be sadly incomplete and longer (much longer) than one.

If held at gunpoint, however ridiculous that sounds, and asked which of Kevin’s illustrations is my favorite, close to the top of the list would definitely be “12 Lessons for Those Afraid of CSS Standards.” It’s just so subtle, and yet so pointed.

What I personally love the most about Kevin’s work is the overall impact it can have on people seeing it for the first time. It has become commonplace within our ranks to hear the phrase, “This is my new favorite Kevin Cornell illustration” with the publishing of each issue. And rightly so. His wonderfully simple style (which is also deceptively clever and just so smart) paired with the fluidity that comes through in his brush work is magical. Case in point for me would be his piece for “The Problem with Passwords” which just speaks volumes about the difficulty and utter ridiculousness of selecting a password and security question.

We, as a team, have truly been spoiled by having him in our ranks for as long as we have. Thank you Kevin.

—Erin Lynch, Production manager

The elephant was my first glimpse at Kevin’s elegantly whimsical visual language. I first spotted it, a patient behemoth being studied by nonplussed little figures, atop Kristina Halvorson’s “The Discipline of Content Strategy,” which made no mention of elephants at all. Yet the elephant added to my understanding: content owners from different departments focus on what’s nearest to them. The content strategist steps back to see the entire thing.

When Rachel Lovinger wrote about “Content Modelling,” the elephant made a reappearance as a yet-to-be-assembled, stylized elephant doll. The unflappable elephant has also been the mascot of product development at the hands of a team trying to construct it from user research, strutted its stuff as curated content, enjoyed the diplomatic guidance of a ringmaster, and been impersonated by a snake to tell us that busting silos is helped by a better understanding of others’ discourse conventions.

The delight in discovering Kevin’s visual rhetoric doesn’t end there. With doghouses, birdhouses, and fishbowls, Kevin speaks of environments for users and workers. With owls he represents the mobile experience and smartphones. With a team arranging themselves to fit into a group photo, he makes the concept of responsive design easier to grasp.

Not only has Kevin trained his hand and eye to produce the gestures, textures, and compositions that are uniquely his, but he has trained his mind to speak in a distinctive visual language—and he can do it on deadline. That is some serious mastery of the art.

—Rose Weisburd, Columns editor

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